GDPR – General Data Protection Regulation
The GDPR came into force in all EU Member States on 25 May 2018. It is arguably the toughest privacy law in the world and covers organisations everywhere that target or process the personal data of EU citizens. Fines can be up to €20m or 4% of global revenue – whichever is higher. The UK has its own version, known as UK GDPR, with the same key principles, rights and regulations, applicable from 1 January 2021.
DPA – Data Protection Authority
DPAs are independent public bodies which supervise and enforce the application of privacy laws including the GDPR. There is a DPA (also known as a supervisory authority) in each member state.
ICO – Information Commissioner’s Office
The UK’s DPA or supervisory authority promotes good practice in handling personal data and providing advice on data protection. The ICO can help to resolve disputes about whether an organisation has complied with the GDPR and take action to enforce compliance where appropriate.
DPO – Data Protection Officer
DPOs monitor internal compliance with the GDPR, advise on data protection obligations and act as a contact point for supervisory authorities. The GDPR requires certain organisations to appoint a DPO, but others can do so voluntarily as part of their commitment to good privacy compliance.
DPIA – Data Protection Impact Assessments
Data protection impact assessments are a requirement under the GDPR and essential in establishing ‘privacy by default and by design’. They help organisations identify and minimise the data protection risks associated with projects. Businesses are obliged to carry out DPIAs for processing that is high risk, but it’s good practice to use them for any major piece of work that requires the processing of personal data. You must consider the nature, scope and purposes of the data collection; the necessity and proportionality; the risks to individuals; and identify the additional measures to mitigate those risks.
SCC – Standard Contractual Clauses
A means by which the transfer of personal information from an organisation in the European Economic Area (EEA) to an organisation outside the EEA may be approved under the GDPR. It is a contract signed by both organisations that sets out their responsibilities in keeping personal data safe.
SAR – Subject Access Request
Individuals have eight separate rights under the GDPR in relation to their personal information, including the so-called ‘right to be forgotten’. Exercise of such rights is known as making a subject access request. The GDPR requires businesses to respond to an SAR within one calendar month.
While not technically an acronym (and not really a privacy term), you will often come across ISO 27001 in privacy compliance. It’s one of the main specifications for an information security management system, which covers all legal, physical and technical controls involved in an organisation’s data risk management process. Businesses that achieve accredited certification to ISO 27001 are judged to be following information security best practice.
EDPB – the European Data Protection Board
This is the EU body in charge of the application of the GDPR. It is made up of the head of each DPA and of the European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) or their representatives. The EDPS is an independent authority whose primary objective is to ensure European institutions and bodies respect the right to privacy and data protection when they process personal data.
CCPA – California Consumer Privacy Act
This regulation was passed in 2018 but came into force on 1 January 2020. Amongst other things, it gives Californian residents the right to know and access their personal information (collected in the past 12 months), the right to delete that information, the right to opt out of the sale of their personal information, and the right to non-discrimination following the exercise of these rights. For-profit businesses which meet certain thresholds and want to do business in California must comply with the CCPA. On 1 January 2023, the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA), which extends these rights further, comes into force.
A culture of continuous privacy compliance
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